Теоретическое обоснование утомления в системе подготовки спортсменов
Аннотация. Изложение в одной статье двух в значительной мере самостоятельных и достаточно разноплановых проблем - утомления и восстановления, имеет определенное теоретическое и прикладное обоснование. И тот и другой физиологический процесс лежит в основе работоспособности и тренированности спортсменов, что, прежде всего, требует приведение условий труда и отдыха в соответствие с психофизиологическими возможностями любого специалиста. Утомление и восстановление представляют собой своеобразные функциональные состояния организма и характеризуются рядом общих физиологических закономерностей. Механизмы развития этих процессов имеют сложный и во многом сходный генез, зависят от индивидуальных особенностей человека, характера его деятельности, уровня профессиональной подготовки, а их регуляция осуществляется как нервным, так и гуморальным путем.
Ключевые слова: утомление, восстановление, работоспособность, функциональные состояния, спортсмены.
Theoretical substantiation of fatigue in the athletes training system
Abstract. The presentation in one article of two largely autonomous and rather versatile problems - fatigue and recovery has a certain theoretical and practical justification. Both physiological processes are the basis of the health and fitness of athletes that primarily requires reduction of the conditions of work and leisure in line with psychophysiological features of any specialist. Fatigue and recovery are the kind of functional state of the body and are characterized by a number of general physiological principles. The mechanisms of these processes are complex and in many ways have the similar genesis, and depends on the individual person and the nature of its activities, the level of training, and their regulation is carried out both with the nervous and humoral way.
Keywords: fatigue, recovery, performance, functional status, athletes.
Introduction. The problem of fatigue is considered relevant general biological problem and is of the great theoretical interests having practical importance for human activities in work and sport. Its essence consists of the manifestation of rushing in nerve cells at different levels of the central nervous system when performing intense muscular work. The development of this theory was an important step in uncovering the mechanisms that protect the nervous system and through it entire body from exhaustion, the result of which could result in exhaustion and overtraining.
Research methods: analysis of scientific literature; pedagogical experiment; control tests; pedagogical supervision; methods of mathematical statistics.
Results of the research and their discussion. A significant contribution to the study of the problem of fatigue was introduced by V.V. Rosenblatt. According to its central cortical theory, starting point of fatigue in muscular work is changing the human cortical centers. In his view, the level of efficiency of the muscles associated with configuring their excitability, tone and elastic and viscous properties, with the state of the blood supply and trophic processes in them is determined by the level of efficiency of nerve centers that control the muscles. Fatigue cortical nerve cells leads, on the one hand, to breach their formidable-controlled coordination processes and, on the other hand, reshaping policy influences of the brain and related underlying formations on executive bodies. In the development of fatigue distinguishes hidden (longest) fatigue, where there is a high efficiency, supported by conation. An economical motor activity in this case falls, you are working with a large energy consumption. This is a reimbursable form of fatigue. While further work develops uncompensated (full) fatigue. The main symptom of this condition is a reduced efficiency. When uncompensated fatigue adrenal functions suppressed, activity of respiratory enzymes is reduced and there secondary strengthening processes of anaerobic glycolysis occur .
In sports, practice diagnosis and study of indicators are particularly important that accompany and indicate fatigue. Some of the most common destinations are distinguished:
1) increase in the number of errors as a result of disorders of coordination of movements;
2) inability to establish new and learning useful skills, upset old previously acquired skills;
3) increase energy, especially carbohydrate, expenses per unit, etc.
Overvoltage or overtraining syndrome is an imbalance between training and recovery. This is a complex of psycho-physiological responses of the body to excessive a training load, usually in combination with the preparation or participation in major competitions, and the lack of time for recuperation. Of course, there are additional factors that trigger this condition, such as emotional stress, adverse psychological climate in a team, frequent transfers, and flights crossing time zones and, therefore, lack of sleep and food and many others.
Many athletes, despite feeling tired, continue to train intensively and to participate in the competition, which leads to overtraining. In other cases, this condition occurs when the athlete starts too early workouts after an illness.
Features of the food are also important. Overtraining occurs most often among those who have not enough calories, vitamins in the diet, are prevalent in foods, and are simple carbohydrates. Overvoltage syndrome is associated with lots of injuries and infectious diseases. Hormonal changes caused by fluids through workouts, adversely affect the athlete's immune system. Violations occur and the motor organ of reducing the elasticity of the ligaments and muscle elasticity. Disturbed activity muscles- antagonists and, accordingly, the coordination of movements, deteriorating defense reactions and the attention that explains the frequency of injuries.
Athlete skills, ranging from masters of sports, constantly teetering on the edge between the optimum levels of workout and overtraining. So how to detect symptoms of overtraining and distinguish them from normal fatigue?
Symptoms of overtraining:
-Insufficient recovery causes a feeling of constant fatigue, often accompanied by painful sensations in the muscles. The main thing that should alert an athlete during strenuous workouts is to make more and more effort in training, while reducing the athletic performance that is characteristic of the syndrome.
-The athlete feels a constant feeling of fatigue, accompanied by sleep disorders, for example, bad falling asleep, frequent awakening.
Sleep becomes restless, superficial, accompanied by nightmares.
-You may experience emotional disorders-apathy, dullness, reluctance to exercise, frivolous attitude to training, and irritability.
Sometimes an athlete concerned about discomfort or pain in the heart and palpitations.
-In unemotional state there often tachycardia and increased blood pressure. On the contrary young athletes have, decreased the heart rate are observed.
-Loss of appetite often happens; the language is covered by white bloom.
-There is often a reduction of body weight.
-About women athletes their menstrual irregularities up to the amenorrhea occur.
These warning signals must indicate the athlete and his coach to the need to adjust the training process and the preparation for a competition, a sports doctor to draw up a programme for the rehabilitation and prevent worsening of the disease process. Overtraining symptoms are very important to identify as early as possible, because the time required for a full recovery, more of the time for which the athlete was in this state. The most effective treatment is to change the regime of workouts, as by reducing their number and time. It should also eliminate lengthy and intense exercise, technically complex and those aimed at endurance. In severe cases, classes ceased to overtraining 1-3 weeks. Sports is assigned with a gradual involvement in a sport mode one should start with general physical training, small loads and only in the process of improving the general condition of the athlete to go to special training.
Conclusion. To avoid overtraining an athlete a coach should closely monitor the appearance of the first signs of this phenomenon. If you are serious about exercises, it is advisable to keep records of the training sessions, noting your well-being during and after classes. In the diary, you should make any changes in the body weight, appetite and sleep duration, etc. Attentive attitude on the part of coaches, athletes and doctors, as well as careful monitoring of the intensity of the workouts are an optimum opportunity for timely detection and prevention of this violation of the physical condition.
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