А.И.Салмова, Л.А.Парфенова, В.И.Волочкова
Организация тренировочного процесса по бильярду среди людей с нарушениями слуха
Аннотация. В статье представлен опыт организации учебно-тренировочного процесса по бильярду у обучающихся с нарушением слуха Основная идея исследования заключается в том, что при организации тренировочного процесса в условиях инклюзии у детей с нарушением слуха повышается уровень социализации.
Ключевые слова. Бильярд, люди с нарушением слуха, тренировочный процесс.
Introduction. In recent years, the Russian society is actively developing the industry of adaptive physical culture and adaptive sports. Along with the traditional Paralympic and Deaflympic kinds, for people with disabilities new sports technology and programs in physical environment were adapted and implemented. Adaptive physical education is a part of physical culture, using a range of effective means of physical rehabilitation of disabled persons and persons with disabilities the Law of the Russian Federation on physical culture and sport.
Sport for the disabled (adaptive sports), as a kind of adaptive physical culture focuses not only on physical rehabilitation of this category of people, but, first and foremost, their adaptation to a normal social environment, overcoming psychological barriers to feeling full of life, and the awareness of the necessity of their personal contribution to the social development of the society.
The means of adaptive sports encourage the development of physical abilities of the individual. Inclusive sport is the inclusion of the person with disabilities in the General sports movement, without regard to the nosological group and "discounts" on the general condition of the body. The variety of sports has a number of distinct advantages for the persons with disabilities:
• optional social integration into the environment;
• increase their "authority" in own eyes and the ability to believe in themselves;
• a heightened sense of tolerance and humanity on the part of rivals.
The first, the mass inclusive sport, as it is quite difficult to show good results in sports of the higher achievements without considering the peculiarities of health status. However, the stereotype has been debunked most recently at the Olympics in Rio, where the Iranian Archer Zahra Nemati, confined to a wheelchair, competed along with absolutely healthy people. This is one example of how the sporting movement can help a person to socialize, be an example for many millions of eyes glued to the screen and something desperate in his life .
The research methods:
1. Analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on the topic of the research.
2. Analysis of the pedagogical documentation.
3. Teacher's observation.
4. Teaching experiment.
The research results and their discussion. In our coaching practice we have experience of organizing training sessions in billiard for children with hearing impairments on the basis of the boarding school. All pupils in the learning process have been carefully selected in the club. Since 2013 the most talented in terms of billiards have studied at sports school. Organizational and managerial system of the boarding school enhances the teaching effect due to the triple alliance - the director of educational work - tutor - coach. The training sessions were held in the afternoon and in the evening after doing homework conducted in groups of 7-8 people, in the form of organized training sessions five times a week. All training sessions were conducted in the Russian nonverbal language, showing the main shock and typical construction scheme of the series in the game. Basic terms and types of impacts were invented by their gestures, intuitive coaches and the pupils. The training system was also adapted to the features of these children .
The rules of the game in two types of billiard have been adapted, considering the perception of these children, such as: a limited vocabulary and difficulty in logical thinking. Since three of the four official games in the pool were played by order (the athlete pronounces which ball in which pocket he is going to score), children with hearing impairments worked out it: the athlete shows his hand ball and the desired pocket. In inclusive tournaments the coach came to future opponents, asked him to be tolerant, and told about the peculiarities of the order, urging him to fulfill also .
In recent years, inclusive processes actively develop, which are gaining popularity and implementation in various forms of sports interaction .
We received positive results of the organization of learning games in inclusive groups where the conducted group of the deaf students with their hearing peers was training. In addition, there were also group trips to competitions of various level for hearing children. During included integrative communication of children from the deaf pupils the level of sports skill and confidence was observed. At the same time healthy pupils were taught till guest's language, became more tolerant, and helped the coach with athletes with hearing impairment, because under the joint travel to competitions all the children lived together at the hotel for five days. The athletes with hearing impairment were readily familiar with athletes from other cities, then continuing to communicate in various social networks [3; 7].
The Championship of Kazan and Tatarstan for children with hearing impairment were annually held among the pupils and inner-school tournaments. The number of participants is 20-25. The athletes participate regularly in competitions with hearing children at various levels. Among the successes during the period of study we can note the following results in the pool: two athletes have won the fifth place in the Championships of the Republic of Tatarstan, the ninth place in the Championships of Russia, the fifth place in the Open Cup of Moscow (competitions among the hearing). The Lesson on Russian billiard was carried out no more than a year, and the children only took part in school tournaments .
Also on the basis of Kazan National Research Technical University named after A.N. Tupolev (KNRTU-KAI) has experience in the organization of classes with hearing- impaired students. In the KNRTU-KAI they teach deaf and hard-of-hearing students on individual educational programs on the basis of The Kazan Educational Research and Methodological Center KNRTU-KAI. In this regard, they organized a club on Russian billiards among these students . The groups were divided into 5-6 people - all were recruited for three groups, the training was accompanied by gestural speech, drawings of the main shock and illustrative examples. These students participated in Superiority match of Kazan National Research Technical University among students and the Superiority Spartakiada of sports camp Ikar in billiard [6; 8].
In Russia there is the Billiard Federation of the Deaf, which is engaged in the promotion and development of billiard among people with hearing impairments. Today there are national and international tournaments in Russian billiards for men who have hearing disability.
Among persons with impaired locomotor apparatus, they also hold competitions on billiard sports. Sometimes the athletes in wheelchairs from Russia took part in European competitions. In the framework of the training process for children with hearing disorders there also trainings for children with cerebral palsy disease along with hearing was carried out. As the practice has shown, if at the first lessons the children found it difficult to stand in the rack and get on the ball - had the coach to carry out for them the blow, in the course of systematic training the children did some success and even won prizes at interschool tournaments.
Billiard has a beneficial effect on the mental system of the person. In England and America pool tables are in each psychiatric hospital. Also the training sessions of individual programs for children with hearing impairments with a certain mental and intellectual disorders were conducted. As it was noted by teachers and educators, after the training, the children became more relaxed; they have improved academic performance in mathematics.
Conclusions. In our opinion, the billiard sport deserves some attention as an adaptive sport. It can be widely introduced as part of physical education in specialized boarding schools of sports and adaptive schools.
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