С.А.Герасимов, В.И.Волочкова, А.В.Мастров
Аэробные возможности в оценке подготовленности бегунов на средние и длинные дистанции
Аннотация. В статье рассматриваются аэробные способности, которые имеет решающее значение для высокого результата в циклических видах спорта. В исследовании, идея в том, что человек в прочих равных условиях (с теми же морфологическими и антропометрических параметров, тот же метод и та же мотивация упражнения) будет развивать и поддерживать мощность работы, которая соответствует его аэробными показателями. Поэтому, измеряя аэробные возможности бегуна можно оценивать состояние его готовности и как следствие эффективность тренировочного процесса.
Ключевые слова: максимальное потребление кислорода, анаэробный порог, аэробные возможности.
Aerobic opportunity to assess preparedness at runners of middle and long distances
Gerasimov S.A., Volochkova V.I., Mastrov A.V.
Annotation. This article describes the aerobic capacity for work that is a crucial and very important moment for good results in cycling sports. In the study, the idea of that a person in other equal conditions (with the same morphological and anthropometric parameters, the same technique and the same exercise motivation) will develop and maintain the power of working according to their aerobic performance. Therefore, measuring the runner's aerobic capacity for work of the runner, we can appreciate and correct his state of readiness and efficiently a result of the training process.
Keywords: maximum oxygen consumption, anaerobic threshold, aerobic capacity
Introduction. The main indicators of aerobic endurance are maximum oxygen consumption (V02max) and anaerobic threshold (AT). V02max is the highest oxygen consumption which can be achieved in dynamic process in continuation engagement of large muscle groups. It is obvious that the highest limit utilization 02 is one of the maximum cardiac output, blood P02, functional distribution of cardiac output in the working muscles and the ability of muscle 02 extraction . Nevertheless, the factor limiting the aerobic capacity for work is more often a cardiovascular system.
The anaerobic threshold is the highest intensity of the load, heart rate and oxygen consumption in the work of large muscle groups for when the produce lactate is equal to its utilization. It represents a level of oxygen consumption (V02) during exercise, in which the aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic energy production, which is a reflection of the increase of lactate levels and the ratio of the lactate - pyruvate in the muscle and arterial blood . The V02max scientific literature is considered as an important indicator of physical capacity for work. In adapting to the intense muscular activity and increase the cyclical nature of the aerobic potential glycogen reservesincrease, the endocrine system in physical activity increases and changes occur at all levels of the biological system.
The research methods:
1. Analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on the topic of the research.
2. Analysis of the pedagogical documentation.
3. Teacher's observation.
4. Teaching experiment.
Results of the research and their discussion. In our research experiment 9 professional athletes and 9 men participated, specializing in middle-distance running and having Candidate for Master of Sport, took part. The respondents were asked to perform the laboratory test with stepwise increases the load on a treadmill to refusal. The test began after a five minute warm-up performance of the test at a speed of 1. 5 m/s. The duration of each step was lminute. During the test there registeredthe parameters of the external respiration athletes:a respiratory volume, respiratory rate and pulmonary ventilation in the mode of each exhalation. The exhaled air is analyzed to determine the content in the oxygen concentration and carbon dioxide, heart rate averaging time of 5 seconds, using 'POLAR' firm device (Finland). The reordered parameters were used to calculate the rates of the 02 consumption and the C02 emission, respiratory rate, ventilation equivalents ofthe 02 allocation consumption. The program calculates these figures automatically, which is a part of the Cortex Metalyser 3B-R2. According to the same program, analyzing the correlation values of pulmonary ventilation and a heart rate were determined graphically.
The experimental results showed that the value of the V02 at the aerobic thresholdof the preparatory period before and after the changes insignificantly. In turnthe indicators the V02max changed from 10% to 20%. We can say that if the oxygen consumption rate in the aerobic threshold is approaching V02max values then from the shape the athlete is at high level.
Conclusions. The study showed that besides to the aerobic capacity, the decisive role played by other factors, which are expressed in the development of the ability to the work for a long time at the level of oxygen consumption, as much as possible close to the V02 max, and the ability to make effective use of existing energy potential in the condition of competition. Therefore, in determining the functional readiness of the athlete should take into account not only the V02max. It is necessary to take into account the aerobic capacity of the body as a whole, including a qualitative and quantitative aspects of this progress: the absolute V02 max, the relative V02 max, the V02 on the anaerobic threshold, the speed and heart rate at the anaerobic threshold and itsoccurrence time, the level of lactate after exercise, breathing rate, minute maximum volume of bloodstream and its time of oncoming.
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